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Human Anatomy – Bachelor of Medicine (for MBBS, MBChB, BSCN, B-PHARM, BDS,BDS, BHMS, etc. )

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About Course

Human Anatomy is a crucial feature of the study of man.  It is a central science that is descriptive, numerate, and whenever possible, experimental. Human anatomy is a broad subject comprising topographic, microscopic, imaging, comparative, developmental, evolutionary, molecular, and clinical components.

Teaching and research in anatomy focus on all of these, and also includes physical, anthropology, paleontology, genetic engineering, molecular biology, cloning, congenital malformations, and neurosciences.  Knowledge valuable in understanding disease patterns their diagnosis, management, and application to prevent and correct congenital anomalies has been increasingly demanding greater in-depth teaching and research in all divisions.

In this course, we’ll take a look at what this subject means and how you can tackle it in the most logical way.

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What Will You Learn?

  • Gross Anatomy
  • Microscopic Anatomy
  • Developmental anatomy
  • Neuroanatomy
  • Clinical and applied anatomy

Course Content

Introduction
This unit presents a hybrid format of both systemic and topographic approaches to the study of anatomy of the human body. Sections begin with the introductory concepts of gross anatomy, histology and embryology. Learners then systematically go through the gross anatomy, microscopic structure, development and congenital malformations of the body organs according to each organ system. These systems include the musculoskeletal, integument, neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive systems. Topographic overviews of various body regions are integrated when studying related body systems. The laboratory component of the unit generally parallels and reinforces lecture concepts through the use of models, charts, histological slides, skeletal materials and cadaver demonstration. The Unit is divided into two parts as follows: Part I Section 1: Introductory concepts of gross and microscopic anatomy Section 2: Basic embryology Section 3: Musculoskeletal system, limbs and integument system Part II Section 4: Head and neck anatomy and neuroendocrine system Section 5: Thorax and cardiorespiratory system Section 6: Abdomen, digestive and urinary systems Section 7: Pelvis and the reproductive system Let us begin by going through the objectives of the unit before proceeding to Part I. UNIT OBJECTIVES By the end of this unit, you should be able to: Outline the introductory concepts of gross and microscopic anatomy Describe the basic embryonic development from gametogenesis until 4th week Describe the structure, development and malformations of the musculoskeletal system, integumentary system and limbs. Describe the components, functions, common malformations of the nervous system, endocrine glands and head and neck anatomy. Describe the general anatomy of the thorax and state the components, structure, development and congenital malformations of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Describe the general anatomy of the abdominal quadrants, anterior abdominal wall and inguinal canal, and state the components, structure, development and congenital malformations of the digestive and urinary systems. Describe the general anatomy of the pelvis and state the components, structure, developments and congenital malformations of the reproductive systems

  • Introduction to Part 1

SECTION ONE: INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS OF GROSS AND MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY
1.1 Section Introduction 1.2 Section Objectives 1.3 Introduction to Human Anatomy 1.4 Introduction to Microscopic Anatomy 1.5 The Cell Structure and Functions of Cellular Organelles 1.6 The Cell Cycle and Cell Functional Specializations 1.7 Organization of Epithelial Tissue and Exocrine Glands 1.8 Organization Fibrous Connective Tissue 1.9 Organization of Cartilage and Bone Tissues 1.10 Organization of Propulsion Tissue 1.11 Nervous Tissue Organization 1.12 Section Summary 1.13 Review Questions

Introduction to Microscopic Anatomy
Welcome to this topic on the introduction to microscopic anatomy. As you have just seen in the previous topic, anatomy has three main divisions namely: Gross anatomy, Microscopic anatomy and Developmental anatomy. To understand how the body functions, there is need to understand how different elements which make the body are organized. These elements may be so minute that can only be visible with the aid of a microscope. In this topic therefore we are going to terms cytology and histology, describe the hierarchal organization of the body, then describe the four basic tissues. Finally, we will outline the various types of microscopes.

The Cell Structure
Cells provide structure for the body, take in nutrients from food, convert those nutrients into energy, and carry out specialized functions. Cells also contain the body's hereditary material and can make copies of themselves. Cells have many parts, each with a different function.

The Cell Cycle and Cell Functional Specializations
Welcome to the topic of cell cycle and functional specialization. This is a continuation of the previous lecture on cytology where we explore and describe the cell cycle and cell functional specialization. In this topic we will describe define the cell cycle and look at the stages of this cycle. Knowledge of this is applicable in understanding what goes wrong in the process of development of cancer. We will then look at how cells are structurally adapted to functions such as protective lining of body surfaces, absorption, protein synthesis, steroid synthesis and contraction.

Organization of Epithelia and Exocrine Glands
Epithelial tissues refer to the layer of cells that line body surfaces, either externally or internally. The shape, number of cell layers and thickness may vary depending on the region of the body and its functional adaptation, but there are some general characteristics that apply to almost all epithelia.

Organization of Fibrous Connective Tissue
Connective tissue is a term used to describe a variety of tissues with differing functional properties but with certain common characteristics. They support, connect, or separate different types of tissues and organs in the body.

Organization of Cartilage and Bone Tissues
Cartilage and bone are specialized supporting tissues, commonly referred to us skeletal tissues. Cartilage is the fetal precursor tissue in the development of many bones; it also supports non-skeletal structures, as in the ear, larynx and tracheobronchial tree. Bone provides a rigid framework which protects and supports most of the soft tissues of the body and acts as a system of struts and levers which, through the action of attached skeletal muscles, permits movement of the body. Bones of the skeleton are connected with each other at joints which, according to their structure, allow varying degrees of movement.

Organization of Propulsion Tissue
The propulsion/muscular tissue consists of specialized cells which are contractile and are excitable. By their contraction they can to move parts of the body or propel, expel, and control the flow of substances. They cells contain contractile protein filaments, namely actin and myosin. The interaction of these fibers produces the force that is necessary for contraction.

Nervous Tissue Organization
By now you will appreciate that cells are not isolated units, but are structurally and functionally integrated. Nowhere can this be better seen than in the nervous tissue, whose function is to transmit electrical messages from one part of the body to another. To this end, nerve cells are elaborately interconnected, thus processes one cell linking up with adjacent cells. Nervous tissue is an intricate network of interconnected cells whose function is to transmit and sometimes to store information. The nervous tissue consists of two categories of cell groups, namely the neurons, which are the functional cells of the tissue, and the neuroglial cells, which are the supporting cells of the tissue.

Section Summary
1.12 Section Summary Anatomy is the study of the structure of the body. It is broadly divided into gross, microscopic and developmental anatomy. The cell is considered the basic unit of life. Some cells in the body are essentially migratory, but most exist as cellular aggregates in which individual cells carry out similar or closely related functions in a coordinated manner. These aggregates are termed tissues, and can be classified into a fairly small number of broad categories on the basis of their structure, function and molecular properties. On the basis of their structure, most tissues are divided into four major types: epithelia, connective or supporting tissue, muscle and nervous tissue. Epithelia are continuous layers of cells with little intercellular space, which cover or line surfaces, or have been so derived. In connective tissues, the cells are embedded in an extracellular matrix which, typically, forms a substantial and important component of the tissue. Muscle consists largely of specialized contractile cells. Nervous tissue consists of cells specialized for conducting and transmitting electrical and chemical signals and the cells that support this activity.

SECTION TWO: BASIC EMBRYOLOGY
2.0 Section Outline 2.1 Section Introduction 2.2 Section Objectives 2.3 Gametogenesis and Fertilization 2.4 1st And 2nd Week of Development 2.5 Embryonic Period of Development 2.6 Foetal Period and Multiple Gestations 2.7 Principles of Teratology 2.8 Section Summary 2.9 Review Questions

First and Second Week of Development and Implantation
Welcome to this lecture on the events of the first two weeks of human development. This is the period immediately after fertilization, extending from day 1 to day 14. It is mainly characterized by differentiation of placental and embryonic tissues and implantation of the blastocyst. At early stages therefore, the cells are predominantly totipotent.

Embryonic Period of Development and Multiple Gestation
The embryonic period development is the period of organogenesis, and extends from the 3rd to the 8th week of gestation. In contrast, the foetal period of development is from week 9 until birth, and is a period that largely involves maturation of body organs. Following fertilization, the early development of the zygote is all the same in all mammals. The most characteristic event occurring during the 3rd week of gestation is gastrulation, the process that establishes all three germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm) in the embryo.

Foetal Period of Development and Multiple Gestations
The foetal period refers to the time of intrauterine after 8 weeks of gestation until birth. It is during this period that maturation of body organs occur. Most of the body organs are formed in the embryonic period of development (3rd to 8th week of gestation).

Principles of Teratology
Teratology is the study of birth defects. When the embryo/fetus is developing, in common cases the normal development processes take place. However, occasionally, there may be some abnormalities. The common term used is defect.

Section Summary
2.8 Section Summary Gametogenesis involves both spermatogenesis and oogenesis, and these occur in the gonads. Following formation of the male and female gametes, the ovum is fertilized usually within the ampulla of the fallopian tube. Fertilization results in the formation of the zygote, a totipotent cell that has renewed capacity of cell division. After the zygote has been form, it begins to develop as it moves towards the uterine cavity (site of implantation). Most of the 1st week of development is therefore spent within the fallopian tube, where the xygote becomes the morula then the blastocyst. The 2nd week of development is characterized by implantation of the blastocyst, and differentiation of placental and embryonic structures. Its commonly called the “week of twos” and this is when the bilaminar germ disc is formed. The embryonic period extends from the 3rd to the 8th week, and its is primarily the period of organogenesis (formation of body organs). It begins with gastrulation, formation of the trilaminar germ disc. The layers of the disc are ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. Thsese layers give rise to distinct tissue types in the body that form various body organs. The foetal period extends beyond week 8 of gestation, and is primarily the p[eriod of maturation of body organs. The foetal membranes include the amnion, yolk sac, allantois and the chorion.

Review Questions
2.9 Review Questions 1. Outline the differences between oogenesis and spermatogenesis. 2. State the phases of mitotic cell division. 3. Outline the results of fertilization. 4. Describe the main events during the 1st week of gestation. 5. Discuss the “week of twos”. 6. Describe the derivatives of each of the layers of the trilaminar disc. 7. Describe the structure, functions and anomalies of the placenta. 8. Describe the process of neurulation. 9. Discuss various methods of fetal monitoring.

SECTION THREE: THE MUSCULOSKELETAL, LIMBS AND INTEGUMENT SYSTEMS
3.0 Section Outline 3.1 Section Introduction 3.2 Section Objectives 3.3 Skeletal System 3.4 Articular System 3.5 Muscular System 3.6 Integument System 3.7 Section Summary 3.8 Review Questions

Articular System
Bones and muscles do not work alone, but together with joints they are able to move body parts. Bones are too rigid to bend without being damaged. Fortunately, flexible connective tissues form joints that hold bones together while still permitting, in most cases, some degree of movement. A joint, also called an articulation or arthrosis, is a point of contact between two bones, between bone and cartilage, or between bone and teeth. When we say one bone articulates with another bone, we mean that the bones form a joint. You can appreciate the importance of joints if you have ever had a cast over your knee joint, which makes walking difficulty or a splint on your finger, which limits your ability to manipulate small objects.

The Muscular System
I hope you remember the earlier discussion of the muscular tissue where we talked about skeletal muscles, cardiac muscles and smooth muscle tissues. Now we will examine the skeletal muscles in details because they make up the majority of the body muscular system. We will examine specifically on the functions of muscular tissue, properties of muscular tissues, microscopic anatomy of skeletal muscles fibers, muscle proteins, contraction and relaxation of skeletal muscle fiber (sliding filament mechanism) neuromuscular junctions, naming of skeletal muscles, muscles of the specific regions of the body.

The Integumentary System
I believe you have understood the different types of tissues of the body that form the general organization of the human body. I also believe you have understood how the body is organized from the head to the lower limbs. I will now introduce to you the cutaneous membrane also known as the skin. The skin covers the external surface of the body. It is the largest organ of the body in both surface area and weight. The Integumentary system is composed of the skin and its attachments (hair, oil and sweat glands, nails, and sensory receptors. So important is the skin to self-image that many people spend a great deal of time and money to restore it to a more normal or youthful appearance. The skin, also known as the cutaneous membrane covers the external surface of the body and is the largest organ of the body in both surface area and weight. In adults, the skin covers an area of about 2 square meters (22 square feet) and weighs 4.5–5 kg (10–11 lb), about 7% of total body weight. It ranges in thickness from 0.5 mm (0.02 in.) on the eyelids to 4.0 mm (0.16 in.) on the heels. Over most of the body it is 1–2 mm (0.04–0.08 in.) thick. Take Note 3.7 The skin is the largest organ of the body in both surface area and weight.

Section Summary
3.7 Section Summary We have learnt that the skeletal system consists of bones and cartilage. The bones can be grouped into axial and appendicular skeleton. We’ve also learnt that joints are junctions between two or more bones, and the allow movements through muscle activity. The can be classified into fibrous, cartilaginous and synovial. Finally, we’ve learnt that the skin has two layers, the epidermis is epithelial and the dermis is a connective tissue layer. The skin appendages include glands, nails and hair

Review Questions
3.8 Review Questions 1. Name the bone cell types and state the functions of each 2. Outline the types of cartilage and state the distribution of each 3. Outline the varieties of synovial joints and give examples of each 4. List the contents of the following spaces of the lower limb: femoral triangle, popliteal fossa, adductor canal 5. List the contents of the following anatomical spaces of the upper limb: axilla, cubital fossa, carpal tunnel 6. Name the cell types of the epidermis and state the functions of each 7. List the sensory receptors in the skin and indicate the modality detected by each 8. Outline the parts of the female breast 9. List the common congenital defects of the limbs and give the embryological basis of each 10. List the congenital malformations of the skin and give the embryological basis of each.

SECTION FOUR: NEUROENDOCRINE SYSTEM
4.0 Section outline 4.1 Section Introduction 4.2 Section Objectives 4.3 The Nervous System 4.4 The Sensory Systems 4.5 The Endocrine System 4.6 Section Summary 4.7 Review Questions Great you have finalized Part I and hope you enjoyed the coverage. It is my pleasure to invite you to Part II of our discussion on Human Anatomy. This is a continuation of Part I of our Unit. In this Part we are going to cover the remaining four sections namely: Section 4: Neuroendocrine system Section 5: Thorax and cardiorespiratory system Section 6: Abdomen, digestive and urinary systems Section 7: Pelvis and the reproductive system PART II OBJECTIVES By the end of this part, you should be able to: Describe the components, functions, common malformations of the nervous system, endocrine glands and head and neck anatomy. Describe the general anatomy of the thorax and state the components, structure, development and congenital malformations of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Describe the general anatomy of the abdominal quadrants, anterior abdominal wall and inguinal canal, and state the components, structure, development and congenital malformations of the digestive and urinary systems. Describe the general anatomy of the pelvis and state the components, structure, developments and congenital malformations of the reproductive systems

The Nervous System
With a mass of only 2 kg (4.5 lb), about 3% of the total body weight, the nervous system is one of the smallest and yet the most complex of the 11 body systems. This intricate network of billions of neurons and even more neuroglia is organized into two main subdivisions: the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.

The Sensory Systems
Recall the general senses include somatic senses (tactile, thermal, pain, and proprioceptive) and visceral sensations. As you learned in that section, receptors for the general senses are scattered throughout the body and are relatively simple in structure. Receptors for the special senses—smell, taste, vision, hearing, and equilibrium—are anatomically distinct from one another and are concentrated in specific locations in the head. In this chapter we will examine the structure and function of the special sense organs, and the pathways involved in conveying their information to the central nervous system.

The Endocrine System
In this section, we are going to discuss about various endocrine organs and the powerful influence of endocrine secretions that is hormones, how hormones help maintain homeostasis on a daily basis.

Section Summary
4.6 Section Summary The nervous system develops primarily from the neuroectoderm. The nervous tissue consists of neurona and neuroglial cell. The nervous system is divided into the centra nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system (12 pairs of cranial and 31 pairs of spinal nerves). The central nervous system is covered by meninges (dura, arachnoid and pia matter). The brain has got cerebrum, cerebellum and the brain stem. The parts of the brainstem are the midbrain, pons and the medulla. There are a system of cavities that constitute the ventricular system that contains the cerebrospinal fluid. The sensory receptors are specialized epithelial cells or neurons that have the capacity to transduce environmental energy to nerve energy. They are divided into general and special receptors. The endocrine system involves organs that secret hormones to act on distant target organs. These organs include hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, testis and the ovary.

Review Questions
a. Name the supporting cells of the nervous tissue and indicate the functions of each. b. Describe the functional localization of the cerebral cortex. c. Name the components, functions and common disorders of the basal ganglia. d. Describe the arterial circle of Willis and blood supply to the cerebrum. e. List the functions of the cerebellum. f. Describe the anatomy of the spinal cord. g. Name the ascending and descending tracts and indicate the function of each.

SECTION FIVE: THE THORAX AND CARDIORESPIRATORY SYSTEMS
5.0 Section Outline 5.1 Section Introduction 5.2 Section Objectives 5.3 The Blood 5.4 Cardiovascular System 5.5 Lymphatic System 5.6 Respiratory System 5.7 Section Summary 5.8 Review Questions

The Blood
The cardiovascular system consists of the heart and blood vessels and lymphatics. For blood to reach body cells and exchange materials with them, it must be pumped continuously by the heart through the body’s blood vessels. The focus of this section is blood. The next two sub sections will examine the heart and blood vessels, respectively. Blood transports various substances, helps regulate several life processes, and affords protection against disease. For all of its similarities in origin, composition, and functions, blood is as unique from one person to another as are skin, bone, and hair.

Cardiovascular System
The cardiovascular system consists of the heart, blood vessels and lymphatics.

The Lymphatic System
The lymphatic system, consisting of lymphatic vessels and various lymphoid tissues and organs, helps maintain fluid balance in tissues and absorb fats from the gastrointestinal tract. It also is part of the body’s defense system against disease. The lymphatic system is closely related to the circulatory system. A network of lymphatic vessels drains excess interstitial fluid (the approximate 15% that has not been returned directly to the capillaries) and returns it to the bloodstream in a one-way flow that moves slowly toward the subclavian veins. In this sub-section, we are going to look at functions of the lymphatic system, components of the lymph, lymphatic vessels and lymphatic organs and tissues.

The Respiratory System
Your body’s cells continually use oxygen (O2) for the metabolic reactions that release energy from nutrient molecules and produce ATP. At the same time, these reactions release carbon dioxide (CO2). The cardiovascular and respiratory systems cooperate to supply O2 and eliminate CO2. The respiratory system provides for gas exchange—intake of O2 and elimination of CO2—and the cardiovascular system transports blood containing the gases between the lungs and body cells. In addition to functioning in gas exchange, the respiratory system also participates in regulating blood pH, contains receptors for the sense of smell, filters inspired air, produces sounds, and rids the body of some water and heat in exhaled air.

Section Summary
5.7 Section Summary The thoracic cavity contains two pleural sacs housing the lungs and the mediastinum which contans the heart, great vessels, trachea, esophagus and nerves. The mediastinum is divided into superior and inferior mediastinum. The inferior is further divided into anterior, middle and posterior mediastinum. The cardiovascular system is made up of the heart and blood vessels. The heart has four chamber four main valves. The heart wall has epicardium, myocardium and endocardium. The conduction tissue of the heart refers to the path followed by the elecritical impulse. The respiratory system is made up of the conduction portion (airways) and the respiratory portion (gas exchange part). The latter contain alveoli and numerous blood vessels.

Review Questions
5.8 Review Questions 1. Outline the divisions and contents of the mediastinum. 2. Illustrate the components of the cardiac conduction tissue. 3. Name the parts and functions of the pleura. 4. Describe the components of the chest wall.

SECTION SIX: ABDOMEN, DIGESTIVE AND URINARY SYSTEMS
6.0 Section outline 6.1 Section Introduction 6.2 Section Objectives 6.3 Digestive System 6.4 Urinary System 6.5 Section Summary 6.6 Review Questions

The Digestive System
The digestive system is a tubular structure involved in the breakdown and absorption of food. It extends from the mouth to the anus, forms an extensive surface area in contact with the external environment, and is closely associated with the cardiovascular system.

The Urinary System
The urinary system consists of two kidneys, two ureters, one urinary bladder, and one urethra. After the kidneys filter blood plasma, they return most of the water and solutes to the bloodstream. The remaining water and solutes constitute urine, which passes through the ureters and is stored in the urinary bladder until it is excreted from the body through the urethra.

Section Summary
6.5 Section Summary The abdomen is divided into nine regions using two vertical and two horizontal lines. The digestive system consists of the alimentary canal and the accessory organs. The GIT wall has a mucosa, submucosa, muscularis propria and adventitia/serosa. The accessory glands include the salivary glands, liver, pancreas and the biliary system. The urinary system consists of the kidney, ureter, urinary bladder and the urethra. The nephron is the functional structural unit of the kidney

Review Questions
6.6 Review Questions 1. Illustrate using a diagram the nine regions of the abdomen. For each region indicate two main organs. 2. Illustrate the parts of the stomach. 3. Name the cell types of the gastric gland and indicate the function of each 4. Name the components and functions of the small intestines. 5. Illustrate the parts of the nephrons.

SECTION SEVEN: THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS
7.0 Section Outline 7.1 Section Introduction 7.2 Section Objectives 7.3 The Male Reproductive System 7.4 The Female Reproductive System 7.5 The Mammary Gland 7.6 Section Summary 7.7 Review Questions

Section Summary
7.6 Section Summary The male reproductive system has extenal and internal genitalia. The male external genitalia is made up of the penis and the scrootum. The male internal genitalia has the testis, the genital ducts (epididymis, vas diferens, ejaculatory duct, urethra) and the accessory glands (prostate, seminal vesicles and the cowper’s gland). The testis is the male gonad and is primarily for spermatogenesis and androgen secretion. The female reproductive system has the external genitalia (vulva), internal genitalia and the breast. The female internal genitalia is composed of the ovary and the reproductive tract (fallopian tube, uterus, cervix and the vaginal canal). The ovary is the female gonad and it’s for oogenesis and hormone production, primarily estrogen and progesterone. The female breast is located in the anterior chest wall. It’s made up of 15-20 lobules. Each lobule is drained by a lactiferous duct. All lactiferous ducts open independently at the nipple.

Review Questions
7.7 Review Questions 1. State components and role of the male sex glands. 2. Describe the structure and functions of the testis. 3. Describe the structure and functions of the ovary. 4. Illustrate the parts of the uterus and fallopian tube.

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