Course Content
1. Introduction to Child Psychology
o Definition and scope of child psychology o Historical perspectives on child psychology o Importance of understanding child development
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2. Theories of Child Development
o Psychoanalytic theories (Freud, Erikson) o Cognitive development theories (Piaget, Vygotsky) o Social learning theory (Bandura) o Attachment theory (Bowlby, Ainsworth)
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3. Biological Foundations of Child Development
o Genetics and hereditary factors o Prenatal development and influences o Brain development in childhood
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4. Cognitive Development in Children
o Piaget's stages of cognitive development o Information processing theories o Language development and communication skills
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5. Emotional Development and Regulation
o The role of emotions in child development o Attachment and emotional bonds o Emotional regulation strategies
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6. Social Development and Relationships
o Socialization processes o Peer relationships and friendships o Family dynamics and influences on social development
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7. Behavioral Patterns in Children
o Normal behavioral development o Behavioral challenges and disorders o Approaches to behavior management
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8. Identifying and Understanding Developmental Disorders
o Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) o Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) o Learning disorders and intellectual disabilities
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9. Trauma and Its Impact on Child Psychology
o Types of childhood trauma o Psychological effects of trauma o Trauma-informed approaches to intervention
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10. Supporting the Psychological Well-being of Children
o Protective factors for psychological health o Promoting resilience in children o Collaboration with parents and caregivers for holistic support
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Child Psychology: Understanding the Normal and Abnormal Psychological Patterns
About Lesson

Introduction: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent patterns of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that significantly impact daily functioning and development. Understanding the features, assessment, and management of ADHD is essential for caregivers, educators, and healthcare professionals. In this lecture, we will explore Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), including its diagnostic criteria, prevalence, associated characteristics, and intervention strategies.

Key Concepts of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD):

  1. Diagnostic Criteria:

    • Inattention: Difficulty sustaining attention, organizing tasks, following through on instructions, and avoiding careless mistakes in schoolwork or other activities.
    • Hyperactivity: Excessive motor activity, such as fidgeting, tapping, or running and climbing in inappropriate situations.
    • Impulsivity: Acting without forethought, interrupting others, blurting out answers, and having difficulty waiting or taking turns.
  2. Subtypes of ADHD:

    • Predominantly Inattentive Presentation: Characterized by primarily inattentive symptoms without significant hyperactivity-impulsivity.
    • Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Presentation: Characterized by primarily hyperactive-impulsive symptoms without significant inattention.
    • Combined Presentation: Involves both inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms.
  3. Prevalence and Impact:

    • Prevalence: ADHD is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders, with prevalence estimates varying between 5% to 7% of children worldwide.
    • Impact: ADHD can have significant consequences across multiple domains, including academic performance, social relationships, self-esteem, and executive functioning skills.
  4. Associated Characteristics:

    • Executive Functioning Deficits: Individuals with ADHD often struggle with executive functions such as planning, organization, time management, and emotional regulation.
    • Learning and Behavioral Challenges: ADHD may co-occur with learning disabilities, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), anxiety disorders, and mood disorders.
    • Risk Factors: Genetic factors, prenatal exposures (e.g., maternal smoking, alcohol use), prematurity, and environmental factors may contribute to the development of ADHD.
  5. Assessment and Diagnosis:

    • Multimodal Assessment: Diagnosis of ADHD involves a comprehensive evaluation incorporating information from multiple sources, including parent and teacher reports, behavioral observations, developmental history, and standardized rating scales.
    • Diagnostic Criteria: ADHD is diagnosed based on specific criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), including the presence of symptoms that significantly impair functioning in two or more settings.
  6. Intervention Strategies:

    • Multimodal Treatment Approach: Effective management of ADHD typically involves a multimodal approach combining behavioral interventions, educational supports, and, in some cases, medication.
    • Behavioral Interventions: Behavioral therapy techniques, such as parent training, classroom behavior management, and social skills training, help address specific challenges associated with ADHD.
    • Educational Accommodations: Individualized education plans (IEPs) or 504 plans provide accommodations and supports to address academic challenges and promote success in school.
    • Medication Management: Stimulant medications (e.g., methylphenidate, amphetamines) and non-stimulant medications (e.g., atomoxetine, guanfacine) are commonly used to manage symptoms of ADHD and improve attention, impulse control, and hyperactivity.

Application to Child Development:

  • Recognizing the signs of ADHD and understanding its impact on individuals’ lives is crucial for early intervention and support.
  • Implementing evidence-based intervention strategies tailored to the individual’s strengths and needs can improve outcomes and enhance quality of life for individuals with ADHD.

Quiz:

  1. Which of the following is a characteristic feature of the predominantly hyperactive-impulsive presentation of ADHD? a) Difficulty sustaining attention b) Excessive motor activity c) Carelessness in schoolwork d) Executive functioning deficits

Answer: b) Excessive motor activity

Takeaway Assignment: Research and compile a list of classroom accommodations and instructional strategies to support students with ADHD in inclusive educational settings. Consider strategies for addressing inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, and executive functioning deficits.

Relevant Scenario: Imagine a classroom where a student with ADHD struggles with inattention during lectures and assignments. Implementing strategies such as preferential seating, frequent breaks, and visual supports can help increase the student’s engagement and success in academic tasks.

Case Study: Analyze a case study of a child with ADHD experiencing difficulties with organization, time management, and completing homework assignments. Develop a comprehensive intervention plan that incorporates strategies for improving executive functioning skills and establishing consistent routines and supports at home and school.

Examples:

  • Providing a quiet, structured workspace with minimal distractions for students with ADHD to complete assignments.
  • Using token economy systems or behavior charts to reinforce positive behaviors and academic achievements in children with ADHD.

Final Topic Summary: In this lecture, we explored Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), including its diagnostic criteria, prevalence, associated characteristics, and intervention strategies. Understanding and addressing the unique needs of individuals with ADHD are essential for promoting positive outcomes and enhancing their quality of life.

Online Resources:

  1. CHADD (Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder): https://chadd.org/
  2. National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) – Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd/index.shtml
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